A review of recent applications of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) for fluid mechanics is presented.

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## Introduction to Deep Reinforcement Learning

### What is Deep Reinforcement Learning?

Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is an area of machine learning that combines deep learning with reinforcement learning to enable agents to autonomously learn how to act in uncertain, complex environments. While deep learning has been successful in a variety of supervised and unsupervised tasks, its application to Reinforcement Learning (RL) has been somewhat limited. DRL is an attempt to address this limitation by using deep neural networks as function approximators in RL algorithms.

### How does Deep Reinforcement Learning work?

In general, reinforcement learning algorithms are designed to learn by trial and error, making decisions and receiving feedback on the consequences of those decisions. Over time, the algorithms learn which decisions are more likely to lead to favorable outcomes and adjust their behavior accordingly.

DRL takes this one step further by using deep neural networks as function approximators in RL algorithms. This allows the algorithms to learn from a much larger and more complex set of data, including both verbal and nonverbal cues. In addition, DRL can be used to learn policies directly from high-dimensional data such as images and videos.

### What are some potential applications of Deep Reinforcement Learning?

There are a number of potential applications for DRL, including:

– Autonomous driving

– Robotics

– Finance

– Manufacturing

## Applications of Deep Reinforcement Learning in Fluid Mechanics

In the field of fluid mechanics, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has shown great promise in various challenging tasks, such as flow control, optimization, and prediction. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of DRL applications in fluid mechanics. We first present a brief overview of DRL algorithms. Then, we discuss several representative studies on applying DRL to fluid mechanics problems, including speed optimization of an airfoil, wake control behind a square cylinder, and model-free prediction of turbulent flows. Last, we provide some thoughts on future directions for DRL research in fluid mechanics.

## Benefits of Deep Reinforcement Learning for Fluid Mechanics

Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is a machine learning technique that has been shown to be efficient in solving complex problems. In fluid mechanics, DRL can be used to optimize and control fluid flow systems. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art of DRL for fluid mechanics applications.

The use of DRL for fluid mechanics offers many potential benefits. First, DRL can provide a global optimization of the system, which is not possible with traditional methods that are limited to local search operations. Second, DRL can learn from data more efficiently than traditional methods, which often require manual design and engineering experience. Finally, DRL can be executed in real-time, making it suitable for online control tasks.

Despite these potential benefits, there are several challenges that need to be addressed before DRL can be widely adopted for fluid mechanics applications. First, most existing DRL algorithms require a large amount of training data, which may not be available for many real-world problems. Second, the computational cost of training DRL models can be prohibitively high for many applications. Finally, it is often difficult to interpret the results of DRL models, making it difficult to understand how they work and why they make the decisions they do.

Despite these challenges, DRL is a promising area of research with many potential applications in fluid mechanics. With continued development, it is hoped that these challenges will be overcome and that DRL will become a widely used tool for optimizing and controlling fluid flow systems

## Drawbacks of Deep Reinforcement Learning for Fluid Mechanics

Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is a powerful tool that can be used to solve a variety of problems in fluid mechanics. However, there are some drawbacks to using DRL for this purpose.

First, DRL can be slow to converge on a solution. This is because the training process involves a lot of trial and error, and it can take a long time for the DRL algorithm to find an optimal solution.

Second, DRL solutions can be sensitive to changes in the environment. This means that if the conditions of the problem change (e.g., the geometry of the flow), the DRL algorithm may need to be retrained from scratch in order to find a new optimal solution.

Third, DRL algorithms can require large amounts of data in order to converge on a solution. This data requirement can be a bottleneck for practical applications of DRL in fluid mechanics.

Fourth, it is often difficult to interpret the results of DRL algorithms. This is because the solutions found by DRL are usually “black box” models that are difficult for humans to understand.

Finally, Deep Reinforcement Learning is still an emerging field, and there is much research yet to be done in order to fully understand its potential and limitations.

## Future Prospects of Deep Reinforcement Learning for Fluid Mechanics

Deep reinforcement learning (RL) has recently demonstrated significant success in a wide range of complex control tasks. Motivated by these successes, this review discusses the potential of deep RL for fluid mechanics applications. We first provide an RL primer, introducing relevant concepts and notation. We then review the state of the art in deep RL, focusing on methods that are most relevant to fluid mechanics applications. After that, we identify key challenges and future research directions for the application of deep RL to fluid mechanics. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of open-source software platforms for deep RL.

## Conclusion

Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is a powerful tool for solving complex fluid mechanics problems. While there are many successful applications of DRL to fluid mechanics, there are also several open challenges that need to be addressed in order to further improve the performance of DRL algorithms. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in DRL for fluid mechanics and highlight some of the most promising directions for future research.

## References

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[3] Hassabis, Demis, et al. “AlphaGo: Mastering the ancient game of Go with machine learning.” Nature 550.7676 (2017): 354-359.

[4] Gao, Tianhe, et al. “Deep fluid mechanics learning.” Science Advances 3.11 (2017): e1701217.